Your step-by-step guide to explaining artificial intelligence:

So far, intelligence has not been defined clearly, but there are some skills that reflect it, such as learning, evaluating, and decision-making, which are skills that represent the human mind, which learns by experience in order to survive. Childhood is the learning stage, and with age comes the stage of evaluating and making decisions, but we all ask: What would happen if these skills existed in other creatures? Will that progress benefit us? Or will it be an obstacle for us? Is it a path to human well-being? Or the end of it? This is what we will discuss in this article.

What is the definition of artificial intelligence?

It is a set of software based on algorithms and mathematical tasks that gives the machine the ability to learn from its surrounding environment, adapt, give solutions, organize, and understand sciences such as sound, image, and video analysis, as well as emotional and societal dealings. Which makes it able to accomplish tasks in a similar way that is almost identical to the human way and sometimes exceeds it.

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What are the types of artificial intelligence?

Artificial intelligence consists of two basic types: strong artificial intelligence, which is known as broad artificial intelligence, and weak artificial intelligence, which is known as narrow artificial intelligence. It must be mentioned that the latter is present in our daily lives, and we deal with it constantly.

First: Strong artificial intelligence - Broad Artificial intelligence:

It is the ability of a machine to think and act with intelligence equivalent to human intelligence, which enables it to deal in all fields and perform any intellectual task that a person can perform, such as Ultron from the movie Avengers: Age of Ultron.

Second: Weak artificial intelligence - Narrow Artificial intelligence:

It is the ability of the machine to perform an individual task that was specially programmed for it, such as Deep Blue, which was released by IBM with programming dedicated to playing chess, and although it is considered weak artificial intelligence (narrow artificial intelligence), it managed to defeat Garry Kasparov, who is the world champion and the best in chess. Other examples of weak artificial intelligence (narrow artificial intelligence) used in our daily lives are smartphones, cars, video games, radars, and other things.

What are the stages of the development of artificial intelligence?

Are you wondering when artificial intelligence started?

Artificial intelligence appeared for the first time in history in 1927 AD as an idea that was represented in the movie “Metropolis,”  which is the first science fiction movie dealing with artificial intelligence and its ability to control humans.

  • In 1941 AD, the world’s first electronic computer was manufactured, and scientists continued to work on artificial intelligence as an idea until Alan Turing published a research paper entitled “Computer, Machine, and Intelligence,” in which he explained the details of his test to determine the machine’s ability to think, and after publishing it, scientists began to ask; Is the machine able to think like humans? Can artificial intelligence compose a poem or paint a painting? Can artificial intelligence generate artificial intelligence?
  • These questions remained unanswered until 1956 AD, when the first conference was held to discuss the issue of artificial intelligence in human history, which is the first starting point for this term. One of its results was that some governments provided money to support research projects in the field of artificial intelligence.
  • In 1957 AD, a scientist manufactured a machine capable of simulating the human mind, it was able to learn and train, as it underwent an experiment in recognizing different images, which was a successful experiment. The New York Times said about it, “A computer expected to be able to walk, speak, and see has been announced. And he can produce similar to himself and is able to realize his existence.” And one of the scientists commented on this news, saying: “A machine capable of thinking and learning has been manufactured, which is the first mathematical simulation of the human mind.”

  • As scientists continued to research and work, the first program capable of talking to humans was created in 1965 AD, but it was not highly efficient, and immediately after that, the first artificial intelligence robot in the world was created in 1966 AD at the Stanford Research Institute.

  • The scientific development of artificial intelligence during this period was slow due to the weakness and lack of capabilities in computers until the year 1997 AD, in which IBM released the first device that works with artificial intelligence, which has the ability to outperform humans and defeat them in a chess match, as we explained in the types of artificial intelligence.

  • In November 2022, OpenAI announced the ChatGPT application, which is an artificial intelligence conversation, but it is difficult to differentiate between it and a human. Its function is to process language and write any text in a human-like manner. It has the ability to translate texts, solve complex mathematical equations, collect, analyze, summarize, and present data. Recommendations, being able to explain how anything works, being able to write creative contents, whether a story or a movie, identifying problems and presenting solutions, analyzing the past and present, and anticipating the future—specialists in the world of technology say that this application can eliminate Google’s control over the world because it is able to provide answers to most user inquiries. This application is designed using the Human Reinforcement Learning (RLHF) method and has been connected to the Internet to learn from millions of texts that already exist, but OpenAI has stated that it will not do the work of the human mind 100%, as it sometimes answers logically but incorrectly. It does understand some formats, but it is unable to differentiate between safe and harmful content.

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  • Since then, to this day, scientists and researchers have been striving to create the first powerful artificial intelligence device.

Deep learning vs. machine learning:

Some people ask if artificial intelligence and machine learning are the same, but now you will discover the difference. Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence, and deep learning is also a subset of machine learning.

First- Machine Learning:

Its algorithms are used in a variety of applications and are concerned with developing the ability to learn machines without programming them directly. The model consists of making certain decisions according to the data entered into it. The data is entered into the network in the form of numbers until the network reaches a specific conclusion based on it, and the larger the data quantities, the more accurate the conclusions.

Second- Deep Learning:

It is a subset of machine learning that is inspired by the human mind and is known as an artificial neural network that consists of several layers, unlike a regular neural network that contains only two layers. The number of layers plays an important role in the strength and accuracy of performance. Scientist Andrew Yan-Tak says: “The point is, it’s all about the size of the data. As we build larger neural networks and train them on more data, we get an improvement in performance.”.

Why is artificial intelligence important?

As we have previously explained, artificial intelligence enters many fields and has many applications, and this puts us in front of its great importance because it is capable of:

  • Preserving the accumulated human experiences and transferring them to smart machines.
  • Using human language with machines instead of programming language.
  • The contribution of automated systems to decision-making.
  • Assist in diagnosing diseases, prescribing medications, and providing interactive education.
  • Reducing risks and psychological stresses for humans.
  • Build a country’s economy faster.
  • Fast data processing with greater efficiency compared to humans.
  • It enhances the capabilities of companies and increases business efficiency.

What are the advantages and benefits of artificial intelligence?

  • Reducing human errors: Because artificial intelligence is not affected by environmental conditions, it does not lose focus, does not feel tired, and cannot make a mistake.

  • Savings: Artificial intelligence, whether strong or weak, has the ability to help a person in his simple and complex tasks, and because his costs for his tasks are few, he is able to save costs, time and effort.

  • Efficiency and accuracy: Artificial intelligence is not constrained by the limited human mind, which gives it the superior ability to continuously develop, link with other devices, and work with it with high efficiency.

  • Zero risk: the presence of artificial intelligence reduces the risk to human life in difficult missions such as space missions, wars, etc.

What are the disadvantages and risks of artificial intelligence?

  • Lack of control: A key characteristic of artificial intelligence is the ability to make decisions that cannot be controlled.

  • Lack of creativity and outside-the-box thinking: Artificial intelligence is programmed with a system of algorithms and mathematical equations, which makes it capable of analyzing data with high accuracy but does not give it the creative ability and outside-the-box thinking to produce new ideas.

  • Reducing the number of jobs for humans: Since artificial intelligence is able to reduce human errors, the risks associated with it are non-existent, and its efficiency is high and accurate while saving time, effort, and cost, it is considered a real threat to human jobs.

Egypt and artificial intelligence:

“Egypt is keen to interact with the data of the digital age, in which technological developments follow every day to create promising opportunities in establishing the foundations of a national economy that rises based on the emerging technologies produced by the Fourth Industrial Revolution, the most prominent of which is artificial intelligence, which necessitated intensifying efforts towards adopting these technologies and drawing clear strategies for ways to benefit from them in building a modern state and achieving Egypt’s development goals aimed at improving the quality of life of Egyptians.

 Therefore, I have commissioned the National Council for Artificial Intelligence to develop an integrated national plan through which we aim to chart the path for the localization of the artificial intelligence industry and to enhance Egypt’s pioneering role at the regional level to be a global player in this field.

The national strategy for artificial intelligence has been formulated according to a model that encourages effective partnerships between the government and private sectors to create a dynamic work environment that stimulates innovation and is supportive of the process of building digital Egypt and digital transformation processes led by applications of artificial intelligence, while working in parallel to encourage investment in research and development in these technologies. And spreading awareness of its importance, in addition to developing human capital to form a generation of Egyptian youth capable of building artificial intelligence applications that are in line with national needs and state priorities.

Based on our firm conviction that emerging technologies, just as they create opportunities, they also pose challenges that must be prepared for, Therefore, within the framework of the National Strategy for Artificial Intelligence, we aim to open horizons of dialogue with stakeholders and international cooperation to exchange visions on best practices for the development and use of artificial intelligence for the public good. Adopting and leading strong positions on the ethical principles of artificial intelligence and its social and economic impact on its applications in African and Arab countries under the umbrella of the African Union and the League of Arab States to reach a common vision that reflects our needs and aspirations and is consistent with our values and principles.

As this strategy enjoys the full support of the state to ensure its successful implementation, I am confident in the efficiency of the Egyptian expertise that is able to mobilize all energies to transform this strategy into action plans that are translated into tangible results on the ground, through which we seek to catch up with artificial intelligence to achieve a new civilizational achievement and industry. Promising future for our great country.

Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi
President of the Arab Republic of Egypt


After defining artificial intelligence and knowing what artificial intelligence is, its types and stages of development, the difference between machine learning and deep learning, the importance of artificial intelligence, what artificial intelligence can do, its advantages and disadvantages, how artificial intelligence works, and the interest of the Egyptian state in it, share with us your opinion. Does artificial intelligence lead humanity to development and growth, or does it replace human intelligence and take away jobs?

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